METONYMIC AND NON-METONYMIC USE OF NAMES FOR BRANCHES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE IN ENGLISH AND CROATIAN: A COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS

Author:
Arijana Krišković
Email:
arijana.kriskovic@medri.uniri.hr
Summary
This paper investigates the role of metonymy in the use of names for the branches of medical science in English and Croatian from the cognitive linguistic perspective. The names of medical branches are a part of medical terminology, which is considered to be unambiguous and transparent. However, the names for medical sciences can be used as referential metonymy of the conceptual type WHOLE FOR PART. In this paper, the metonymic use of names for medical branches in the scientific discourse in English and Croatian is analyzed and compared. The data were collected from journal articles published in English and Croatian. The name for a branch of medical science can be used in English to denote diseases, symptoms or signs, but also methods and tests that are associated with a particular branch of medical science. In these metonymic situations, the predicate is semantically linked to the metonymic target, and not to the source. Thus, we can suggest that the metonymic target in referential metonymy should be observed in its interaction with the predicate. It would also seem that the metonymic target acts as a motivating factor for the selection of the predicate. The metonymic use of names for medical branches also occurs in the Croatian language, although, in some cases it appears to be inappropriate and may be construed as a deviation from the conceptualisations of the Croatian language. It seems that, due to structural reasons, Croatian prefers the construction adjective derived from the name for a medical branch and a noun. However, Croatian medical terminology is subjected to constant influence of the English scientific discourse which is introduced into Croatian via translations. In this way, pragmatic elements have an impact on the conceptual structures which undergo the process of category extension to include new meanings. English medical terminology is the standard in which certain metonymic meanings are conventionalized, and thus it is demontsrated that metonymy plays a role in the development of new meanings.
Key words
referential metonymy; English language; Croatian language; medical terminology; scientific discourse
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